- Diabetes Mellitus. (DM) / Type 2 diabetes
- Peripheral Arterial disease – Poor circulation because of the damage or narrowing of
the arteries, called peripheral arterial disease. Without adequate blood flow, the body’s
cells cannot get oxygen and nutrients they need from the blood stream. As a result the
affected tissue begins to die.
- Chronic Venous Insufficiency.
- Severe injury. (For example, from a Road Traffic Accident, Serious burn, Machinery,
Powered tools, an animal attack (e.g., crocodile), a battlefield)
- Malignancy/Cancerous tumor in the bone or muscle of the limb
- Serious infection that does not get better with antibiotics or other treatment.
- Thickening of nerve tissue, called a neuroma.
- To prevent the spread of gangrene as a complication of frostbite.
- Congenital deficiency
In Sri Lanka, major lower limb amputations were more common in males compared
to females ( Males : Female ratio = 1.7 : 1). Diabetes mellitus contributed to more than 50% of amputations directly or indirectly. (Ubayawansa et al., 2016)